Envío Digital
Central American University - UCA  
  Number 105 | Mayo 1990



On the Verge of Peace, or Civil War?
President Daniel Ortega turned over the presidential sash to Nicaragua's new president, Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, on April 25, 1990, as promised. It was the first peaceful transfer of power from... continuar...


Low Intensity War and Revolutionary Maneuvering
The US “low-intensity war” and its disastrous economic results dominate as the root cause in interpretations of the Sandinista's electoral defeat in February. But that isn’t enough; all revolutions... continuar...

El Salvador

Forcing Negotiation
Only a year ago the Duarte government, the army and the United States refused an FMLN proposal to postpone elections for six months to create more democratic conditions. The FMLN boycotted the elections,... continuar...


Challenges to the Military Model
Three visions of the development of society are competing in Guatemala, as we examined in envío’s 1989 Central America issue: the “state stability” model, a neoliberal option and a revolutionary... continuar...


Neoliberalism Unopposed
After a year laced with costly and festive electoral campaigning, Hondurans elected Rafael Leonardo Callejas as their new President in November. Callejas, of the National Party, won 51% of the vote,... continuar...

Costa Rica

Showcase for Democracy and Economic Reformism?
Despite other, more earth-shaking events in the world in 1989, Costa Ricans' attention was on the country's election campaign during most of the year. The Supreme Electoral Tribunal had hoped to restrict... continuar...


The Monroe Doctrine and the End of Torrijismo
Your majesty, in your vision you saw standing before you a giant statue, bright and shining, and terrifying to look at. Its head was made of the finest gold; its chest and arms were made of silver;... continuar...


Whither Central America? Coopted Negotiation or Participatory Democracy?
Central America is in suspended animation after the avalanche of events in recent months. They rolled down on us one after the other: in El Salvador, the FMLN offensive and the massacre of the Jesuits... continuar...


Final Reflections
Within the next few months the direction El Salvador and Nicaragua take out of their current crossroads will be known; it will define their dynamic for 1991. In 1992 Guatemala may well become the key... continuar...

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